Field observation of debris-flow activities in the initiation area of the Jiangjia Gully, Yunnan Province, China Field observation of debris-flow activities in the initiation area of the Jiangjia Gully, Yunnan Province, China

最小化 最大化

Vol19 No.6: 1602-1617 

Title】Field observation of debris-flow activities in the initiation area of the Jiangjia Gully, Yunnan Province, China

Author】YANG Hong-juan1; ZHANG Shao-jie1*; HU Kai-heng1; WEI Fang-qiang2; WANG Kai1; LIU Shuang1

Addresses】1 Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Process, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China; 2 Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China

Corresponding author】ZHANG Shao-jie

Citation】Yang HJ, Zhang SJ, Hu KH, et al. (2022) Field observation of debris-flow activities in the initiation area of the Jiangjia Gully, Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Mountain Science 19(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-021-7292-3

DOI】https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-021-7292-3

Abstract】The Jiangjia Gully, which is located in Dongchuan District, Yunnan Province, China, is a watershed prone to debris flows and has long-term recorded data of debris-flow occurrence. However, the initiation mechanism has mainly been studied by experiments in this watershed. To further reveal debris-flow formation mechanism in the Jiangjia Gully, debris-flow activities in the initiation zone were observed with hand-held video cameras in the summer of 2016 and 2017. In these two years, six debris-flow events were triggered in Menqian Gully, a major tributary of the Jiangjia Gully, while debris-flow activities in some sub-watersheds of Menqian Gully were recorded with video cameras in four events. The video recording shows that landslides constituted an important source for sediment supply in debris flow. Some landslides directly evolved into debris flows, while the others released sediment into rills and channels, where debris flows were generated for sediment entrainment by water flow. Therefore, debris-flow occurrence in the Jiangjia Gully is influenced both by infiltration-dominated processes and by runoff-dominated processes. In addition, rainfall data from four gauges installed in Menqian Gully were analyzed using mean intensity (I), duration (D), peak 10-minute rainfall (R10min) and antecedent rainfall (AR) up to 15 days prior to peak 10-minute rainfall. It reveals that debris-flow triggering events can be discriminated from non-triggering events either by an I-D threshold or by an R10min-AR threshold. However, false alarms can be greatly reduced if these two kinds of thresholds are used together. Moreover, behaviors including intermittency of debris flow, variance in moisture content and volume among surges, and coalescence of multiple surges by temporary damming were observed, indicating the complexity of debris-flow initiation processes. These findings are expected to enhance our knowledge on debris-flow formation mechanism in regions with similar environmental settings.

Keywords】Debris flow; Field observation; Initiation mechanism; Rainfall threshold; Jiangjia gully