Vol18 No.9: 2377-2387
【Title】Changes in soil organic carbon, nitrogen and sulphur along a slope gradient in apple orchard soils of Kashmir Himalaya, India
【Author】Javaid M DAD1, Lotfollah ABDOLLAHI2*
【Addresses】1 Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, (J&K), India; 2 Faculty of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Iran
【Corresponding author】Lotfollah ABDOLLAHI
【Citation】Dad JM, AbdollahiL (2021) Changes in soil organic carbon, nitrogen and sulphur along a slope gradient in apple orchard soils of Kashmir Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science 18(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-021-6764-9
【Abstract】Accumulation and losses of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (S) influence food security and global warming. Therefore, their spatial distribution and variability at regional scale, and their relation to topographical variables are of great interest. In this study, the variability of SOC, TN and S content was evaluated in apple orchard soils of Kashmir region, India, at three depths (D1: 0-10, D2:10-20, and D3:20-30 cm) on slope gradient i.e.: flat, medium, and high. With an increase in slope, a significant decrease of SOC and TN was observed, with concentration of SOC and TN recorded highest (14.3±2.06g kg-1 & 0.97±0.35g kg-1) in flat slope orchards and lowest (9.6±2.07g kg-1 & 0.84±0.41g kg-1) in high slope orchards. On stock basis, the values recorded for flat, medium, and high slope orchards, for SOC and TN were 54.62±4.24Mg ha-1& 0.38±0.06Mg ha-1,44.13±5.11Mg ha-1 & 0.32±0.09Mg ha-1,and 38.73± 5.94Mg ha-1& 0.28±0.10,respectively.The differences for S concentration and stocks were modest, with flat (0.21±0.15mg kg-1& 0.09±0.0.003Mg ha-1) > high (0.16±0.07mg kg-1& 0.06±0.007 Mg ha-1) > medium (0.12±0.04mg kg-1& 0.075±0.009Mg ha-1). Across slopes, SOC, TN and S decreased with increasing soil depth, suggesting clear downward trend. Overall, SOC and TN increased with the increase of altitude, precipitation and clay content while its relationship with soil acidity and soil bulk density was negative. The findings mayprovide scientific basis to structure agricultural development plans or prioritize regions for soil conservation efforts.
【Keywords】Apple orchards;Slope;Soil organic carbon;Sulphur;Total nitrogen;Soil bulk density