Vol18 No.4: 819-833
【Title】Spring recharge and groundwater flow patterns in flysch aquifer in the Połonina Wetlińska Massif in the Carpathian Mountains
【Author】Karolina Mostowik1*, Damian Krzyczman1, Eliza Płaczkowska2, Bartłomiej Rzonca1, Janusz Siwek1, Patryk Wacławczyk
【Addresses】1 Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Gronostajowa 7, St. 30–387 Kraków, Poland; 2 Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana St. 22, 31–018 Kraków, Poland
【Corresponding author】Karolina MOSTOWIK
【Citation】MostowikK, KrzyczmanD, PłaczkowskaE, et al. (2021) Spring recharge and groundwater flow patterns in flysch aquifer in the Polonina Wetlińska Massif in the Carpathian Mountains. Journal of Mountain Science 18(4). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6524-2
【Abstract】Flysch-type aquifers in the Eastern Carpathians usually feed periodic and low-discharge springs. However, in some areas, such as in the upper part of the Połonina Wetlińska Massif, perennial springs with a relatively high discharge were identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify recharge and groundwater flow patterns of three high-discharge springs based on the response of spring discharge to rainfall and on the relationship between specific electrical conductivity of water and spring discharge. The relation between spring discharge and rainfall was investigated by cross-correlation analyses. Generally, cumulative rainfall over a period from 10 days to 3 months is most strongly correlated with discharge; however, the response time of spring discharge varies throughout the year. Faster response to rainfall occurs in the spring after snowmelt, while in the summer and autumn months the response time increases. Two flow systems were identified: 1) a relatively deep, fissure-pore flow system with a long response time to precipitation and 2) a shallow, fissure-dominated system with a short response time, which is superimposed on the longer response.A small range of specific electrical conductivity combined with the varying discharge of two springs suggeststhat dilution of groundwater by rainwater does not play a significant role. The differences in the studied springs' response to rainfall can be attributed to the recharge area, regolith features and local bedrock structures, i.e. occurrence of joints and faults, monoclinal dip of rock layers and gravitational slope deformations including ridge-top trenches, which, thus far, have been underestimated in determining groundwater storage capacity in the flysch part of the Carpathians.
【Keywords】Cross-correlation; Rainfall recharge;Spring response;Sedimentary rocks;Poland