Indexing the engineering properties of residual soils in the southern slopes of Mashhad, NE Iran Indexing the engineering properties of residual soils in the southern slopes of Mashhad, NE Iran

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Vol17 No.9: 2179-2202

Title】Indexing the engineering properties of residual soils in the southern slopes of Mashhad, NE Iran

Author】Saeedeh HOSSEINI1*, Gholam Reza LASHKARIPOUR2, Naser HAFEZI MOGHADDAS2, Mohammad GHAFOORI2

Addresses】1 Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, Po Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Corresponding author】Saeedeh HOSSEINI

Citation】Hosseini S, Lashkaripour GR, Hafezi Moghaddas N, Ghafoori M (2020)Indexing the engineering properties of residual soils in the southern slopes of Mashhad, NE Iran. Journal of Mountain Science 17(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-019-5770-7

DOI】https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-019-5770-7

Abstract】Residual soils are weathering products of rocks that are commonly found under unsaturated conditions. The properties of residual soils are a function of the degree of weathering. A series of index properties, engineering properties and geophysics survey examinations were performed on residual soils from two major geological formations in Iran. In the present research, the index properties of residual soils in the south of Mashhad city in Iran are investigated. Natural and artificial trenches were analyzed for evaluating the weathering profiles and collecting soil samples. Disturbed and undisturbed samples were obtained from each of the soil profile horizons resulting from weathering of different parent rocks. Subsequently, physical properties and mechanical properties of the soil samples were determined in accordance with ASTM standards. Also, the mineralogical composition, chemistry, and texture of the soil were evaluated in 51 profiles. The field observations showed the difference in the weathering profile of residual soils deposited on various rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic). These profiles mainly consisted of two horizons including residual soil on top and saprolite at the bottom. The results of laboratory tests and geotechnical data showed that the properties of residual soil samples change by depth. Moreover, depending on the type of origin rock, the properties are different in various types of residual soils. In most of the samples, the moisture content of soil horizons was also increased by depth. Based on the unified soil classification (USCS), the soils of the upper horizons appeared to be classified as ML(Lean silt)and CL (Lean clay)while the soils of the lower horizons (saprolite zone) fall in SC (clayey sand), SM (silty sand), and SW (well-graded sand) classes. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the particle size of the soil was increased by depth. Comparison of results of the geotechnical tests showed that properties of residual soils are changed by variations of depth, weathering level, and type of parent rock. Considering the concentration of the number of lines and the concentration of the points of intersection, the length and dimension fractal of lineaments in the southeastern part of the study area, it is evident that this zone possesses weathering severity and soil thickness. Fieldwork data from this zone have also verified the severity of weathering conditions. The analysis of lineaments trends in different parts of the study area indicated that the lineaments with the NW-SE trend have a strong effect on weathering development. The weathering depth depends on the orientation of bedding joints with respect to the slope in the study area. Slope inclination and soil thickness are controlled by weathering and erosion processes.

Keywords】Residual soil; Rock weathering; Geomechanical characteristics; Mashhad City