Stand structure, floristic composition and species diversity along altitudinal gradients of a Bornean mountain range 30 years after selective logging Stand structure, floristic composition and species diversity along altitudinal gradients of a Bornean mountain range 30 years after selective logging

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Vol16 No.6: 1419-1434

Title】Stand structure, floristic composition and species diversity along altitudinal gradients of a Bornean mountain range 30 years after selective logging

Author】Renee Sherna LAING1; Kian Huat ONG1*; Roland Jui Heng KUEH1; Nixon Girang MANG2; Patricia Jie Hung KING1; Muaish SAIT1

Addresses】1 Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, P. O. Box 396, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia; 2 Forest Department Sarawak, Wisma Sumber Alam, Jalan Stadium, Petra Jaya, 93660 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia 

Corresponding author】Kian Huat ONG

Citation】LaingRS, Ong KH, Kueh RJH (2019) Stand structure, floristic composition and species diversity along altitudinal gradients of a Bornean mountain range 30 years after selective logging. Journal of Mountain Science 16(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-018-5219-4

DOI】https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-018-5219-4

Abstract】The mountainecosystem is a hotspot of biodiversity and provides a significant contribution to the humans' livelihoods. However, there is still a lack of information regarding floral diversity and how it has been affected due to a logging operation in Sarawak.A study was conducted to determine vegetation recovery at the Heart of Borneo conservation area atdifferent elevations: 750–1200 m (S1), 1200–1500 m (S2) and >1500 m (S3).A total of 891 trees were enumerated.The trees comprised 55 families, 98 genera and 203 species.The lowest elevation site, S1, contained the highest number of species (117) and families (42), whilethe highest elevation site, S3, contained the lowest diversity (25 families and 59 species).A similarforest structure was recorded, whereby diameter at breast height (dbh), basal area and height decreasedas elevation increased. The most speciose families in S1 were Dipterocarpaceae (11 species) and Lauraceae (10 species),while Lauraceae and Fagaceae were the dominant tree families at S2 and S3.Secondary tree species are still abundantly found in the logged plots,especially at S2 (45.5%), indicatingthatafter 30 years, these stands are still inthe recovery stages.The logged plots retained typical secondary forest appearances with lower canopy diameters and heights and dbh than the unlogged forest.Although the species richness approached that of the unlogged plots,especially at S1 (90.9%) and S3 (94.9%), there were still major differences in the floristiccompositions between logged and unlogged plots (35.4%, 21.5% and 44.7% for S1, S2 and S3,respectively).Although potential seed sources were inclose proximity, succession at S2 has proceeded much slower than at S1 and S3.Lower concentrationsof soil nutrients,especially N,may be the main reason for the slow recovery.In conclusion, the results suggested that the selectively logged forest at the Payeh Maga Highland required more than three decades to recover and achieve a climate forest stage.

Keywords】Forest structure; Mountain highland; Tree diversity; Vegetation recovery; Bornean mountain