Vol16 No.5: 1133-1149
【Title】Shifting dynamics of nature, society and agriculture in the Hindu Kush Himalayas: Perspectives for future mountain development
【Author】BHATTA Laxmi Dutt1*; SHRESTHA Anil2; NEUPANE Nilhari1; JODHA Narpat Singh1; WU Ning3
【Addresses】1 International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Post Box # 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2 Department of Viticulture and Enology, 2360 E. Barstow Ave., M/S VR 89, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA; 3 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), No.9 Section 4, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu 610041 China
【Corresponding author】BHATTA Laxmi Dutt
【Citation】Bhatta LD, Shrestha A, Neupane N, et al. (2019) Shifting dynamics of nature, society and agriculture in the Hindu Kush Himalayas: Perspectives for future mountain development. Journal of Mountain Science 16(5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-018-5146-4
【Abstract】Current approaches for sustainable mountain development have several persisting warning signals. Economic globalization, profit-oriented market development, and infrastructure development have significantly altered traditional nature-society interactions, increased environmental pressures, and challenged agricultural sustainability in the mountains. Some of the effects of globalization could also be beneficial. Social differentiation and disintegration of mountain communities' have weakened their collective stakes on natural resources resulting in decline in initiatives such as community forestry, collective water management, domestication of rapidly disappearing herbal species, and balancing of economic and ecological concerns. Population growth, food insecurity, unemployment, and increasing economic gaps between rich and poor have led to out-migration of youth. Sustained action promoting ownership of new initiatives for rehabilitating degraded mountain landscapes through macro-level global/national initiatives, mountain specific planning and development efforts is severely lacking in many areas on the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Therefore, there is an urgent need for widening the scope of efforts directed to help mountain areas and communities, and a future thinking approach to enhance the sustainability of mountain areas as they are a valuable natural resource for humankind. This paper discusses the issues, opportunities, and provides suggestions for the future of mountain development.
【Keywords】Environment; Migration; Mountain agriculture; Mountain development; Sustainability