Vol13 No.9: 1527-1543
【Title】Outlining a stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system: an example of application in Aizi Valley, China
【Author】CHEN Ning-sheng1; Javed Iqbal TANOLI2,3; HU Gui-sheng1*; WANG Feng-niang1; YANG Cheng-lin1; DING Hai-tao1; HE Na1; WANG Tao1
【Addresses】1 Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China; 2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3 Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
【Citation】Chen NS, Tanoli JI, Hu GS, et al. (2016) Outlining a stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system: an example of application in Aizi Valley, China. Journal of Mountain Science 13(9). DOI: 10.1007/s11629-015-3624-5
【Abstract】In recent years, the increasing frequency of debris flow demands enhanced effectiveness and efficiency of warning systems. Effective warning systems are essential not only from an economic point of view but are also considered as a frontline approach to alleviate hazards. Currently, the key issues are the imbalance between the limited lifespan of equipment, the relatively long period between the recurrences of such hazards, and the wide range of critical rainfall that trigger these disasters. This paper attempts to provide a stepwise multi-parameter debris flow warning system after taking into account the shortcomings observed in other warning systems. The whole system is divided into five stages. Different warning levels can be issued based on the critical rainfall thresholds. Monitoring starts when early warning is issued and it continues with debris flow near warning, triggering warning, movement warning and hazard warning stages. For early warning, historical archives of earthquake and drought are used to choose a debris flow-susceptible site for further monitoring. Secondly, weather forecasts provide an alert of possible near warning. Hazardous precipitation, model calculation and debris flow initiation tests, pore pressure sensors and water content sensors are combined to check the critical rainfall and to publically announce a triggering warning. In the final two stages, equipment such as rainfall gauges, flow stage sensors, vibration sensors, low sound sensors and infrasound meters are used to assess movement processes and issue hazard warnings. In addition to these warnings, community-based knowledge and information is also obtained and discussed in detail. The proposed stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system has been applied in Aizi valley China which continuously monitors the debris flow activities.
【Keywords】Debris Flow; Monitoring system; Warning system; Aizi Valley; Rainfall threshold