Vol11 No.1: 236-287
【Title】The Glacial (MIS 3-2) Outlet Glacier of the Marsyandi Nadi-icestream-network with its Ngadi Khola Tributary Glacier (Manaslu- and Lamjung Himalaya): The Reconstructed Lowering of the Marsyandi Nadi Ice Stream Tongue down in to the Southern Himalaya Foreland
【Addresses】Department of Geography and High Mountain Geomorphology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstr. 5, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
【Corresponding author】E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +49 551 398067; Fax: +49 551/398067
【Citation】Kuhle M (2014) The glacial (MIS 3-2) outlet glacier of the Marsyandi Nadi-icestream-network with its Ngadi Khola tributary glacier (Manaslu- and Lamjung Himalaya): The reconstructed lowering of the Marsyandi Nadi ice stream tongue down in to the southern Himalaya foreland. Journal of Mountain Science 11(1). DOI: 10.1007/s11629-013-2820-4
【Abstract】For the reconstruction of past climate variations, investigations on the history of glaciers are necessary. In the Himalaya, investigations like these have a rather short tradition in comparison with other mountains on earth. At the same time, this area on the southern margin of Tibet is of special interest because of the question as to the monsoon-influence that is connected with the climate-development. Anyhow, the climate of High Asia is of global importance. Here for the further and regionally intensifying answer to this question, a glacial glacier reconstruction is submitted from the Central-Himalaya, more exactly from the Manaslu-massif. Going on down-valley from the glacial-historical investigations of 1977 in the upper Marsyandi Khola (Nadi) and the partly already published results of field campaigns in the middle Marsyandi Khola and the Damodar- and Manaslu Himal in the years 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2007, new geomorphological and geological field- and laboratory data are introduced here from the Ngadi (Nadi) Khola and the lower Marsyandi Nadi from the inflow of the Ngadi (Nadi) Khola down to the southern mountain foreland. There has existed a connected ice-stream-network drained down to the south by a 2,100-2,200 m thick and 120 km long Marsyandi Nadi main valley glacier. At a height of the valley bottom of c. 1,000 m a.s.l. the Ngadi Khola glacier joined the still c. 1,300 m thick Marsyandi parent glacier from the Himalchuli-massif (Nadi (Ngadi) Chuli) – the south spur of the Manaslu Himal. From here the united glacier tongue flowed down about a further 44 km to the south up to c. 400 m a.s.l. (27°57'38"N/84°24'56"E) into the Himalaya fore-chains and thus reached one of or the lowest past ice margin position of the Himalayas. The glacial (LGP (Last glacial period), LGM (Last glacial maximum) Würm, Stage 0, MIS 3-2) climatic snowline (ELA = equilibrium line altitude) has run at 3,900 to 4,000 m a.s.l. and thus c. 1,500 altitude meters below the current ELA (Stage XII) at 5,400-5,500 m a.s.l. The reconstructed, maximum lowering of the climatic snowline (ΔELA = depression of the equilibrium line altitude) about 1,500 m corresponds at a gradient of 0.6°C per 100 altitude meters to a High Glacial decrease in temperature of 9°C (0.6 × 15 = 9). At that time the Tibetan inland ice has caused a stable cold high, so that no summer monsoon can have existed there. Accordingly, during the LGP the precipitation was reduced, so that the cooling must have come to more than only 9°C.
【Keywords】Ice Age; Glaciation; Himalaya; Manaslu; Ngadi Khola; Icestream network; Last Glacial period