The Impact of Topography on Social Factors, a Case Study of Montenegro The Impact of Topography on Social Factors, a Case Study of Montenegro

最小化 最大化

Vol11 No.1: 131-141

Title】The Impact of Topography on Social Factors, a Case Study of Montenegro

Author】TELBISZ Tamás1*, BOTTLIK Zsolt2, MARI László1, KŐSZEGI Margit2

Addresses】1 Department of Physical Geography, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, 1117 Budapest, Hungary; 2 Department of Regional Science, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, 1117 Budapest, Hungary

Corresponding author】e-mail: telbisztom@caesar.elte.hu

Citation】Telbisz T, Bottlik Zs, Mari L, et al. (2014) The impact of topography on social factors, a case study of Montenegro. Journal of Mountain Science, 11(1). DOI: 10.1007/s11629-012-2623-z.

DOI】10.1007/s11629-012-2623-z.

Abstract】Relationships between environmental and social factors have long been studied by geographers. Nowadays, GIS-aided statistical analysis provides new tools to explore these relationships. In order to detect the impact of topography on social factors, we selected the country of Montenegro as a case example due to its high topographic variability. We compared the spatial pattern of population, settlements and ethnic minorities to physical geographic factors, especially to topography, but lithology and land cover data were also taken into consideration. We found that certain factors are closely correlated, e.g. the settlement density linearly decreases with elevation, while the characteristic settlement area shows an exponential increase upwards. The population density is not related to absolute elevation, but it is in close correlation with height (i.e. elevation relative to the local minimum). Population change and illiteracy are also topography-related social factors. On the contrary, the variable ethnic pattern of Montenegro is influenced by historical, political and economic effects rather than by environmental factors or topographic features. As a conclusion we state that in the scale of a country or a region, the environment can strongly impact some social factors.

Keywords】Human-environment relations; Dinarides; GIS; Settlements; Population; Ethnic groups