Shifting paradigms for Nepal’s protected areas: history,challengesand relationships Shifting paradigms for Nepal’s protected areas: history,challengesand relationships

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Vol14 No.5: 964-979

Title】Shifting paradigms for Nepal's protected areas: history,challengesand relationships

Author】BabuRBHATTARAI1, 2*; Wendy WRIGHT2; Buddi S POUDEL3; AchyutARYAL2,4; BhupendraP YADAV1; RadhaWAGLE5

Addresses】Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, #860, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2 Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, Victoria, Australia; 3 Department of Forest Research and Survey, # 3339, Kthmandu, Nepal; 4 Institute of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Massey University, # 102904, Auckland, New Zealand; 5 Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, # 12476 Kathmandu, Nepal

Corresponding author】bhattarai.babur@gmail.com

Citation】Bhattarai BR, Wright W, Poudel BS, et al. (2017) Shifting paradigms for Nepal's protected areas: history, challenges and relationships. Journal of Mountain Science 14(5). DOI: 10.1007/s11629-016-3980-9

DOI】10.1007/s11629-016-3980-9

Abstract】The modern history of protected area(PA)management in Nepal dates back to 1973 when the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973) was promulgated and Chitwan National Park was established. In the years immediately following these key events, protected area acts and regulations were strictly applied and the role of local people in managing natural resources was neglected. However with the passage of time, and with changes in the socio-political and economic characteristics of Nepal, management regimes have shifted towards a more liberal model which recognizes more clearly the contributions of people living and working within protected areas. Recently, landscape level conservation models including the designation of multiple use areas have been utilized in the development of management plans for protected areas in Nepal. Conservation agencies have attempted to tackle challenges such as land use conflict, poaching and smuggling of wildlife parts and illegal harvesting of highly valued medicinal herbs through regulation, but these efforts are not always successful. We recommend a holistic conflict resolution approach which recognizes and resolves the different needs of all stakeholders.

Keywords】Protected area; National Park; Conservation; Management; Development history; Nepal