Lithological mapping with multispectral data – setup and application of a spectral database for rocks in the Balakot area, Northern Pakistan Lithological mapping with multispectral data – setup and application of a spectral database for rocks in the Balakot area, Northern Pakistan

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Vol14 No.5: 948-963

Title】Lithological mapping with multispectral data – setup and application of a spectral database for rocks in the Balakot area, Northern Pakistan

Author】Michael FUCHS 1*; Adnan A. AWAN 2; Sardar S. AKHTAR2; Ijaz AHMAD2; Simon SADIQ2; Asif RAZZAK2; Naghmah HAIDER3

Addresses】1 Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hanover, Germany; 2 Geological Survey of Pakistan, 84, Street 3, Sector H-8/1, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3 Geological Survey of Pakistan, P.O Box No. 1461 Shahzad Town, Islamabad, Pakistan

Corresponding author】michael.fuchs@bgr.de

Citation】Fuchs M, Awan A, Akhtar S, et al. (2017) Lithological mapping with multispectral data – setup and application of a spectral database for rocks in the Balakot area, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Mountain Science 14(5). DOI: 10.1007/s11629-016-4101-5

DOI】10.1007/s11629-016-4101-5

Abstract】In the frame of landslide susceptibility assessment,a spectral library was created to support the identification of materials confined to a particular region using remote sensing images. This library, called Pakistan spectral library (pklib) version 0.1, contains the analysis data of sixty rock samples taken in the Balakot region in Northern Pakistan. The spectral library is implemented as SQLite database. Structure and naming are inspired by the convention system of the ASTER Spectral Library. Usability, application and benefit of the pklib were evaluated and depicted taking two approaches, the multivariate and the spectral based. The spectral information were used to create indices. The indices were applied to Landsat and ASTER data tosupportthe spatial delineation of outcropping rock sequences instratigraphic formations. The application of the indices introduced in this paper helps to identify spots where specific lithological characteristics occur. Especially in areas with sparse or missing detailed geological mapping, the spectral discrimination via remote sensing data can speed up the survey. The library can be used not only to support the improvement of factor maps for landslide susceptibility analysis, but also to provide a geoscientific basisto furtheranalyze the lithological spot in numerous regions in the Hindu Kush.

Keywords】Lithological mapping; Multispectral data; Spectral library; Normalized difference index; Northern Pakistan