XIA Chengzhi, SHI Zhenming, KOU Huanjia. 2024: A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics method considering residual stress for simulating failure and its application in layered rock mass. Journal of Mountain Science, 21(6): 2091-2112. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-023-8362-5
Citation: XIA Chengzhi, SHI Zhenming, KOU Huanjia. 2024: A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics method considering residual stress for simulating failure and its application in layered rock mass. Journal of Mountain Science, 21(6): 2091-2112. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-023-8362-5

A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics method considering residual stress for simulating failure and its application in layered rock mass

  • Residual strength is an indispensable factor in evaluating rock fracture, yet the current Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) framework rarely considers its influence when simulating fracture. An improved cracking strategy considering residual stress in the base bond SPH method was proposed to simulate failures in layered rocks and slopes and verified by experimental results and other simulation methods (i.e., the discrete element method). Modified Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion was applied to distinguish the mixed failure of tensile and shear. Bond fracture mark ψ was introduced to improve the kernel function after tensile damage, and the calculation of residual stress after the damage was derived after shear damage. Numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate its performance under different stress and scale conditions and to verify its effectiveness in realistically reproducing crack initiation and propagation and coalescence, even fracture and separation. The results indicate that the improved cracking strategy precisely captures the fracture and failure pattern in layered rocks and rock slopes. The residual stress of brittle tock is correctly captured by the improved SPH method. The improved SPH method that considers residual strength shows an approximately 13% improvement in accuracy for the safety factor of anti-dip layered slopes compared to the method that does not consider residual strength, as validated against analytical solutions. We infer that the improved SPH method is effective and shows promise for applications to continuous and discontinuous rock masses.
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