DAUD Hamza, TANOLI Javed Iqbal, ASIF Sardar Muhammad, QASIM Muhammad, ALI Muhammad, KHAN Junaid, BHATTI Zahid Imran, JADOON Ishtiaq Ahmad Khan. 2024: Modelling of debris-flow susceptibility and propagation: a case study from Northwest Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science, 21(1): 200-217. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-023-7966-0
Citation: DAUD Hamza, TANOLI Javed Iqbal, ASIF Sardar Muhammad, QASIM Muhammad, ALI Muhammad, KHAN Junaid, BHATTI Zahid Imran, JADOON Ishtiaq Ahmad Khan. 2024: Modelling of debris-flow susceptibility and propagation: a case study from Northwest Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science, 21(1): 200-217. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-023-7966-0

Modelling of debris-flow susceptibility and propagation: a case study from Northwest Himalaya

  • The geological and geographical position of the Northwest Himalayas makes it a vulnerable area for mass movements particularly landslides and debris flows. Mass movements have had a substantial impact on the study area which is extending along Karakorum Highway (KKH) from Besham to Chilas. Intense seismicity, deep gorges, steep terrain and extreme climatic events trigger multiple mountain hazards along the KKH, among which debris flow is recognized as the most destructive geohazard. This study aims to prepare a field-based debris flow inventory map at a regional scale along a 200 km stretch from Besham to Chilas. A total of 117 debris flows were identified in the field, and subsequently, a point-based debris-flow inventory and catchment delineation were performed through ArcGIS analysis. Regional scale debris flow susceptibility and propagation maps were prepared using Weighted Overlay Method (WOM) and Flow-R technique sequentially. Predisposing factors include slope, slope aspect, elevation, Topographic Roughness Index (TRI), Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), stream buffer, distance to faults, lithology rainfall, curvature, and collapsed material layer. The dataset was randomly divided into training data (75%) and validation data (25%). Results were validated through the Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve. Results show that Area Under the Curve (AUC) using WOM model is 79.2%. Flow-R propagation of debris flow shows that the 13.15%, 22.94%, and 63.91% areas are very high, high, and low susceptible to debris flow respectively. The propagation predicated by Flow-R validates the naturally occurring debris flow propagation as observed in the field surveys. The output of this research will provide valuable input to the decision makers for the site selection, designing of the prevention system, and for the protection of current infrastructure.
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